After sequencing genomes, we would like to compare them. We will see that dynamic programming is a powerful algorithmic tool when we compare two genes (i.e., short sequences of DNA) or two proteins. When we "zoom out" to compare entire genomes, we will employ combinatorial algorithms.
Once we have sequenced genomes in the previous course, we would like to compare them to determine how species have evolved and what makes them different.
In the first half of the course, we will compare two short biological sequences, such as genes (i.e., short sequences of DNA) or proteins. We will encounter a powerful algorithmic tool called dynamic programming that will help us determine the number of mutations that have separated the two genes/proteins.
In the second half of the course, we will "zoom out" to compare entire genomes, where we see large scale mutations called genome rearrangements, seismic events that have heaved around large blocks of DNA over millions of years of evolution. Looking at the human and mouse genomes, we will ask ourselves: just as earthquakes are much more likely to occur along fault lines, are there locations in our genome that are "fragile" and more susceptible to be broken as part of genome rearrangements? We will see how combinatorial algorithms will help us answer this question.
Finally, you will learn how to apply popular bioinformatics software tools to solve problems in sequence alignment, including BLAST.
This course is primarily aimed at undergraduate-level learners in computer science, biology, or a related field who are interested in learning about how the intersection of these two disciplines represents an important frontier in modern science.
Introduction to Sequence Alignment
If you joined us in the previous course in this Specialization, then you became an expert at assembling genomes and sequencing antibiotics. The next natural question to ask is how to compare DNA and amino acid sequences. This question will motivate this week's discussion of sequence alignment, which is the first of two questions that we will ask in this class (the algorithmic methods used to answer them are shown in parentheses):
How Do We Compare DNA Sequences? (Dynamic Programming)
Are There Fragile Regions in the Human Genome? (Combinatorial Algorithms)
Graded: Week 1 Quiz
Graded: Open in order to Sync Your Progress: Stepik Interactive Text for Week 1
From Finding a Longest Path to Aligning DNA Strings
Last week, we saw how touring around Manhattan and making change in a Roman shop help us find a longest common subsequence of two DNA or protein strings.
This week, we will study how to find a highest scoring alignment of two strings. We will see that regardless of the underlying assumptions that we make regarding how the strings should be aligned, we will be able to phrase our alignment problem as an instance of finding the longest path in a directed acyclic graph.
Graded: Week 2 Quiz
Graded: Open in order to Sync Your Progress: Stepik Interactive Text for Week 2
Advanced Topics in Sequence Alignment
Last week, we saw how a variety of different applications of sequence alignment can all be reduced to finding the longest path in a Manhattan-like graph.
This week, we will conclude the current chapter by considering a few advanced topics in sequence alignment. For example, if we need to align long strings, our current algorithm will consume a huge amount of memory. Can we find a more memory-efficient approach? And what should we do when we move from aligning just two strings at a time to aligning many strings?
Graded: Week 3 Quiz
Graded: Open in order to Sync Your Progress: Stepik Interactive Text for Week 3
Genome Rearrangements and Fragility
You now know how to compare two DNA (or protein) strings. But what if we wanted to compare entire genomes? When we "zoom out" to the genome level, we find that substitutions, insertions, and deletions don't tell the whole story of evolution: we need to model more dramatic evolutionary events known as genome rearrangements, which wrench apart chromosomes and put them back together in a new order. A natural question to ask is whether there are "fragile regions" hidden in your genome where chromosome breakage has occurred more often over millions of years. This week, we will begin addressing this question by asking how we can compute the number of rearrangements on the evolutionary path connecting two species.
Graded: Week 4 Quiz
Graded: Open in order to Sync Your Progress: Stepik Interactive Text for Week 4
Applying Genome Rearrangement Analysis to Find Genome Fragility
Last week, we asked whether there are fragile regions in the human genome. Then, we took a lengthy detour to see how to compute a distance between species genomes, a discussion that we will continue this week.
It is probably unclear how computing the distance between two genomes can help us understand whether fragile regions exist. If so, please stay tuned -- we will see that the connection between these two concepts will yield a surprising conclusion to the class.
Graded: Week 5 Quiz
Graded: Open in order to Sync Your Progress: Stepik Interactive Text for Week 5
Week 6: Bioinformatics Application Challenge
In the sixth and final week of the course, we will apply sequence alignment algorithms to infer the non-ribosomal code.
"Assembling DNA and Proteins" is the suggested prerequisite for taking this course, but it is not a strict prerequisite, especially if you have some programming experience. The programming assignments in this class can be solved using any programming lang
How do we infer which genes orchestrate various processes in the cell? How did humans migrate out of Africa and spread around the world? In this class, we will see that these two seemingly different questions can be addressed using similar algorithmic and machine learning techniques arising from the general problem of dividing data points into distinct clusters.
Learn various methods of analysis including: unsupervised clustering, gene-set enrichment analyses, Bayesian integration, network visualization, and supervised machine learning applications to LINCS data and other relevant Big Data from high content molecular and phenotype profiling of human cells.
Large-scale biology projects such as the sequencing of the human genome and gene expression surveys using RNA-seq, microarrays and other technologies have created a wealth of data for biologists. However, the challenge facing scientists is analyzing and even accessing these data to extract useful information pertaining to the system being studied. This course focuses on employing existing bioinformatic resources – mainly web-based programs and databases – to access the wealth of data to answer questions relevant to the average biologist, and is highly hands-on.
Ce cours explique comment l’informatique contribue à l’analyse de l’information génétique. Il introduit conjointement les notions de génomique et d’algorithmique impliquées. Dans ce cours, nous verrons comment l’informatique permet d’interpréter le texte des génomes. Doté d’algorithmes adaptés, mis en œuvre sous forme de programmes efficaces, l’ordinateur produit des prédictions quant à la localisation des milliers de gènes d’un organisme vivant et les fonctions que remplissent les protéines qu’ils codent.
Курс «Введение в биоинформатику» адресован тем, кто хочет получить расширенное представление о том, что такое биоинформатика и как она помогает биологам и медикам в их работе. The course is aimed at those who would like to have a better idea of what bioinformatics is and how it helps biologists and medical scientists in research and clinical work.
Biologists still cannot read the nucleotides of an entire genome as you would read a book from beginning to end. However, they can read short pieces of DNA. In this course, we will see how graph theory can be used to assemble genomes from these short pieces. We will further learn about brute force algorithms and apply them to sequencing mini-proteins called antibiotics. Finally, you will learn how to apply popular bioinformatics software tools to sequence the genome of a deadly Staphylococcus bacterium.
Are you interested in learning how to program (in Python) within a scientific setting? This course will cover algorithms for solving various biological problems along with a handful of programming challenges helping you implement these algorithms in Python. Each of the four weeks in the course will consist of two required components. First, an interactive textbook provides Python programming challenges that arise from real biological problems.
This course distills for you expert knowledge and skills mastered by professionals in Health Big Data Science and Bioinformatics. You will learn exciting facts about the human body biology and chemistry, genetics, and medicine that will be intertwined with the science of Big Data and skills to harness the avalanche of data openly available at your fingertips and which we are just starting to make sense of.
In this course, we will see how evolutionary trees resolve quandaries from finding the origin of a deadly virus to locating the birthplace of modern humans. We will then use methods from computational proteomics to test whether we can reconstruct Tyrannosaurus rex proteins and prove that birds evolved from dinosaurs.
MOOCs – Massive Open Online Courses – enable students around the world to take university courses online. This guide, by the instructors of edX’s most successful MOOC in 2013-2014, Principles of Written English (based on both enrollments and rate of completion), advises current and future students how to get the most out of their online study, covering areas such as what types of courses are offered and who offers them, what resources students need, how to register, how to work effectively with other students, how to interact with professors and staff, and how to handle assignments. This second edition offers a new chapter on how to stay motivated. This book is suitable for both native and non-native speakers of English, and is applicable to MOOC classes on any subject (and indeed, for just about any type of online study).