En este curso analizaremos algunos interrogantes éticos y jurídicos que suscita el trasplante de órganos. In this course we will assess the ethical and legal challenges posed by organ transplantation. In this course we will assess the ethical and legal challenges posed by organ transplantation.
Este curso se imparte en español con subtítulos en inglés, y tanto el material adicional como los ejercicios del curso se ofrecerán en español e inglés. / This course will be taught in Spanish with English subtitles; the required readings as well as the quizzes and other evaluation materials will be provided in both languages.
Desde que en 1954 se realizara el primer trasplante exitoso de un órgano, la cirugía de trasplantes se ha desarrollado espectacularmente brindando esperanza y calidad de vida a muchos enfermos. Mientras esas técnicas y posibilidades terapéuticas avanzan, persisten sin embargo muchos interrogantes sobre el modo en el que los órganos pueden obtenerse lícitamente. Algunos de esos dilemas nos acompañan desde siempre, otros son suscitados por la aparición de fenómenos novedosos como el turismo de trasplantes, las posibilidades que ofrece la donación tras la muerte cardiocirculatoria o los descubrimientos sobre las funciones fisiológicas remanentes en los pacientes diagnosticados en muerte cerebral. En la inmensa mayoría de los países no se pueden comprar y vender órganos. ¿Por qué? A pesar de que muchas personas siguen muriendo a la espera de recibir un órgano, en ningún país se confiscan los órganos de las personas fallecidas. ¿Por qué? ¿Pueden donar los menores? ¿Debemos prescindir de la conocida como “regla del donante cadáver” y permitir la eutanasia para la donación? ¿Con qué límites? ¿De qué manera influye la potencial condición de donante de un órgano en los cuidados que se proporcionan al final de la vida? ¿Cómo evitar el conflicto de intereses entre quienes velan por la vida de los futuros receptores de un órgano y quienes aún se afanan por cuidar a quien va a fallecer de manera irremisible e inminente?
En este curso nos adentraremos en el análisis de ésas y otras cuestiones, pero también introduciremos los nuevos desafíos que para la ética y el Derecho plantean trasplantes novedosos así como la discusión en torno a los criterios de justa distribución de los órganos
-------- The first successful organ transplantation was performed in 1954. Since then, the technique has evolved tremendously, giving hope and increased quality of life to many patients around the world. While the technology and drugs advance, several controversies persist regarding the way in which organs may be obtained. Some of these dilemmas arose on the very first day in which organs’ transplantation originated; others have emerged as a result of new phenomena such as transplantation tourism, the new possibilities brought by donation after cardio-circulatory death, or increasing knowledge about the remaining physiological functions detected in patients pronounced as brain dead. Almost all countries in the world forbid the selling of organs. Why? Although many people die while on the waiting lists, in no country does the Government confiscate cadaveric organs. Why? May minors be organ donors? Should we abandon the so-called “dead donor rule” and allow “organ-donation euthanasia”? How does the potential condition of becoming a donor influence the administration of end-of-life care? How should we avoid the eventual conflict of interests between those who care for the life of future recipients of organs and those who are in charge of the dying patient-eventual-donor? In this course we will explore the answers to these questions, and we will also engage in the assessment of the more recent challenges posed by novel transplantation techniques, and, albeit briefly, in the discussion regarding the fair distribution of organs.
What you'll learn:
- Entender los desafíos jurídicos y éticos actuales que plantean los trasplantes de órganos / Understand the current ethical and legal challenges raised by organ transplantation.
- Conocer las circunstancias clínicas que explican algunos dilemas morales / Grasp the clinical circumstances surrounding organ transplantation that explain those ethical and legal conundrums.
- Conocer las respuestas jurídicas e institucionales que se han dado a los problemas suscitados por el trasplante de órganos en distintas jurisdicciones / Learn the legal and institutional frameworks that enable the practice of organ transplantation in different countries.
- Saber pensar mejor sobre la aplicación de ciertos principios de la bioética a la materia de los trasplantes de órganos / Apply the bioethical principles to the domain of organ transplantation.
Discover how the medical community harnesses the power of art and empathy to improve patient care. What impact can art and the humanities have on patient care? Can art enhance medical caregivers’ powers of observation and humanize their interactions with patients? Through presence alone, can caregivers heal what they cannot cure?
This course distills for you expert knowledge and skills mastered by professionals in Health Big Data Science and Bioinformatics. You will learn exciting facts about the human body biology and chemistry, genetics, and medicine that will be intertwined with the science of Big Data and skills to harness the avalanche of data openly available at your fingertips and which we are just starting to make sense of.
You will learn about the career paths that are available in journalism, and what opportunities the skill sets of a journalist can offer in other fields. You will explore areas such as being an international correspondent, self-publishing in journalism, as well as how to freelance in the field. You will be empowered to develop your own path in journalism, from being an active and informed consumer, to being a journalist.
In this course you will learn about the importance of quality in healthcare and how you can contribute by implementing a quality improvement (QI) project to improve processes of care and patient outcomes. You will learn about powerful tools to add to your QI ‘toolbox’ during short lectures and reflective exercises.
Making predictions is not enough! Effective data scientists know how to explain and interpret their results, and communicate findings accurately to stakeholders to inform business decisions. Visualization is the field of research in computer science that studies effective communication of quantitative results by linking perception, cognition, and algorithms to exploit the enormous bandwidth of the human visual cortex. In this course you will learn to recognize, design, and use effective visualizations.
Understanding the clinical terms and abbreviations commonly used in U.S. hospitals is challenging. Adaptation to clinical language can be difficult for U.S. students entering the clinical area and even more so for international students whose primary language is not English. This course is designed to help both groups of students understand the terms and abbreviations commonly encountered during the first three months of clinical work on a U.S. hospital unit.
Clinical trials are experiments designed to evaluate new interventions to prevent or treat disease in humans. The interventions evaluated can be drugs, devices (e.g., hearing aid), surgeries, behavioral interventions (e.g., smoking cessation program), community health programs (e.g. cancer screening programs) or health delivery systems (e.g., special care units for hospital admissions). We consider clinical trials experiments because the investigators rather the patients or their doctors select the treatment the patients receive.
Public Mental Health is the application of the principles of medicine and social science to prevent the occurrence of mental and behavioral disorders and to promote mental health of the population. This course illustrates the principles of public health applied to depressive disorder, including principles of epidemiology, transcultural psychiatry, health services research, and prevention.
The vital signs – heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, respiration rate, and pain – communicate important information about the physiological status of the human body. In this six-part course we explore the anatomy and physiology underlying the vital signs so that you will develop a systematic, integrated understanding of how the body functions. Relevant body systems are reviewed including cardiovascular and respiratory, followed by explanations of how the function of these systems affects vital signs. We discuss normal ranges, normal variants, and the mechanisms that underlie changes in the objective measurement of vital signs. The course also includes demonstrations of appropriate techniques for measuring vital signs in yourself and others.
Effective altruism is built on the simple but unsettling idea that living a fully ethical life involves doing the most good one can. In this course you will examine this idea's philosophical underpinnings; meet remarkable people who have restructured their lives in accordance with it; and think about how effective altruism can be put into practice in your own life.
MOOCs – Massive Open Online Courses – enable students around the world to take university courses online. This guide, by the instructors of edX’s most successful MOOC in 2013-2014, Principles of Written English (based on both enrollments and rate of completion), advises current and future students how to get the most out of their online study, covering areas such as what types of courses are offered and who offers them, what resources students need, how to register, how to work effectively with other students, how to interact with professors and staff, and how to handle assignments. This second edition offers a new chapter on how to stay motivated. This book is suitable for both native and non-native speakers of English, and is applicable to MOOC classes on any subject (and indeed, for just about any type of online study).